Prof Carroll obtained his PhD from the Medical Faculty at the University of Manchester. He continued his studies on recombinant poxviruses at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health, USA under the prestigious International Fogarty Fellowship. Prof Carroll then joined Oxford Biomedica in the UK as Vice President of Immunotherapy wherein during his tenure, he was one of the named inventors of the cancer vaccine, TroVax and was the Lead for the pre-clinical and Phase II development programme. From 2004, Prof Carroll has worked as the Chief Scientific Officer for a small molecule biotech company MNL Pharma and as consultant to UK universities and government research institutes for translating technologies and commercialisation. In 2008, Prof Carroll joined Public Health England as Deputy Director, Head of Research at Porton Down with strategic and operational responsibilities to lead the Department in translational research in the areas of high containment microbiology, infectious disease vaccines, therapeutics, diagnostics, and decontamination. Prof Carroll currently leads the Carroll Group: High Consequence Emerging Viruses Group at the Centre for Human Genetics in the University of Oxford with research focus on Ebola, Lassa fever, and SARS-CoV-2 viral infections.